6.0 Conclusion

6.1 Summary

The bus stop, like many public spaces, can be a complex knot of social, economic and cultural activities in the local community (Avdelidi, 2004). This projected attempted to categorize and improve such spaces through a rigorous process. It identified seven goals for urban design around transit stops and nine techniques through a literature review for achieving those goals. Nine stops were selected for design application after careful analysis of the transit network. Then, the techniques were applied to nine stops in Metro Vancouver. Throughout the process, I found that many stops in addition to the nine selected are in need of improvements; most of them requiring upgrades in the cover, seating, and lighting categories. There are also many stops in rapidly developing urban core areas that can undergo changes similar to those at Oakridge Centre.

All the improvements displayed in this project aimed to not only make the wait at a bus stop more comfortable for the rider, but also to make this space a valued asset in the community. Extra seating makes waiting more comfortable and also serves as park signage. Pedestrian scaled lighting makes riders feel safer and also increases the general walkability of the neighbourhood. Bicycle parking increases modal connectivity and also adds to the cycling infrastructure of the area. As a result, this project shows that municipalities and transit organizations can work together to turn transit zones into coveted spaces rather than zones of lower value (Zacharias et al., 2011).

6.2 Recommendations and Further Studies

It is recommended for communities that are looking to invest in bus stop enhancements to work in collaboration with other community improvement initiatives as this project shows that many synergies exist. Changes that improve the waiting area at a bus stop generally also make the block more walkable. By integrating bus stop improvement programs with other planning goals, one can reach a more informed and effective outcome. Further research should look at how to implement a more publicly involved design process. Such input would add valuable insight and sense of ownership to the project. Additional research should focus on the implementation strategies for these designs as they vary between different municipalities and funding mechanisms. Such work would help bring the interventions to fruition. Finally, further research can look at how these principles can be scaled up to larger and less numerous transit stations, such as light rail, subways, and heavy rail.

7.0 Bibliography

Alliance Against Crime. (2011). Designing Out Crime: A Designers' Guide. London.

Asaeda, T., & Thanh, V. (1996). Heat storage of pavements and its effect on the lower atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 3(3).

Avdelidi, K. (2004). Social Considerations at the Design of Open Spaces. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

BC Ministry of Environment. (2008). British Columbia Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report.

bin Saleh, J., & Pitts, A. (2004). Potential for Energy Saving in Transition Spaces. Ashrae Standard. University of Sheffield.

Boarnet, M. G., Greenwald, M. J., & McMillan, T. E. (2008). Walking, Urban Design, and Health: Toward a Cost-Benefit Analysis Framework. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27(3), 341-358. doi:10.1177/0739456X07311073

Borst, H. C., Miedema, H. M. E., de Vries, S. I., Graham, J. M. A., & van Dongen, J. E. F. (2008). Relationships between street characteristics and perceived attractiveness for walking reported by elderly people. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(4), 353-361. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.02.010

Brown, B. B., Werner, C. M., Amburgey, J. W., & Szalay, C. (2007). Walkable Route Perceptions and Physical Features: Converging Evidence for En Route Walking Experiences. Environment and Behavior, 39(34), 34-61. doi:10.1177/0013916506295569

Buys, L., & Miller, E. (2011). Conceptualising convenience: Transportation practices and perceptions of inner-urban high density residents in Brisbane, Australia. Transport Policy, 18(1), 289-297. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.08.012

Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P. L., & Handy, S. L. (2008). No Particular Place to Go: An Empirical Analysis of Travel for the Sake of Travel. Environment and Behavior, 41(2), 233-257. doi:10.1177/0013916507310318

Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P. L., & Handy, S. L. (2009). The relationship between the built environment and nonwork travel: A case study of Northern California. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 43(5), 548-559. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2009.02.001

Carr, L. J., Dunsiger, S. I., & Marcus, B. H. (2010). Walk scoreTM as a global estimate of neighborhood walkability. American journal of preventive medicine, 39(5), 460-3. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.07.007

Cervero, R. (2002). Built environments and mode choice: toward a normative framework. Transportation Research, 7(4), 265-284. doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(01)00024-4

Cho, G., Rodriguez, D. A., & Khattak, A. J. (2009). The role of the built environment in explaining relationships between perceived and actual pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41(4), 692-702. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.008

Chrisomallidou, N., Chrisomallidis, M., & Theodosiou, T. (2004). Design Principles and Applications. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Chun, C., & Tamura, A. (2005). Thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces. Building and Environment, 40(5), 633-639. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.08.001

Clemente, O., Ewing, R., Handy, S. L., & Brownson, R. C. (2010). Measuring Urban Design Qualities: an Illustrated Field Manual. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Cole, R., Burke, M., Leslie, E., Donald, M., & Owen, N. (2010). Perceptions of representatives of public, private, and community sector institutions of the barriers and enablers for physically active transport. Transport Policy, 17(6), 496-504. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.05.003

Compagnon, R., & Goyette-Pernot, J. (2004). Visual Comfort in Urban Spaces. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Daly, A., & Zachary, S. (1975). Commuters Values of Time.

Davies, A. L., & Rogers, K. G. (1973). Modal Choice and the Value of Time.

Dimoudi, A., & Nikolopoulou, M. (2003). Vegetation in the urban environment: microclimatic analysis and benefits, 35, 69-76.

Dueker, K. J., Strathman, J. G., & Bianco, M. J. (1998). Strategies to Attract Auto Users to Public Transportation.

Eck, W., & McGee, H. W. (2008). Vegetation Control For Safety.

Ercoskun, O. Y., & Karaaslan, S. (2011). Next-generation urban design guides for sustainability of small towns: A case study on Gudul, Turkey. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(2), 105-124. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.3

Ewing, R. (2001). Using a Visual Preference Survey in Transit Design. Public Works Management & Policy (Vol. 5, pp. 270-280). doi:10.1177/1087724X0154002

Ewing, R. (2008). Traffic calming in the United States: are we following Europe's lead? Urban Design International, 13(2), 90-104. doi:10.1057/udi.2008.20

Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2010). Travel and the Built Environment: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(3), 265-294. doi:10.1080/01944361003766766

Fukahori, K., & Kubota, Y. (2003). The role of design elements on the cost-effectiveness of streetscape improvement. Landscape and Urban Planning, 63, 75-91.

Fung, W. M. (2012). Infill as catalyst for vivid urban fabric formation - A study on increasing walk-ability in Hong Kong. URBAN DESIGN International, 17(1), 18-32. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.24

Gaardsted Esbensen Consulting Engineers Ltd. (2004). Considerations of the Wind in Urban Spaces. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Gallimore, J. M., Brown, B. B., & Werner, C. M. (2011). Walking routes to school in new urban and suburban neighborhoods: An environmental walkability analysis of blocks and routes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(2), 184-191. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.01.001

Garmendia, M., de Urena, J. M., Ribalaygua, C., Leal, J., & Coronado, J. M. (2008). Urban Residential Development in Isolated Small Cities That Are Partially Integrated in Metropolitan Areas By High Speed Train. European Urban and Regional Studies, 15(3), 249-264. doi:10.1177/0969776408090415

Gehl, J. (1987). Life between Buildings; Using Public Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Giddings, B., Charlton, J., & Horne, M. (2011). Public squares in European city centres. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(3), 202-212. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.6

Gjerde, M. (2011). Visual evaluation of urban streetscapes: How do public preferences reconcile with those held by experts? URBAN DESIGN International, 16(3), 153-161. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.10

Gutierrez, J., Cardozo, O. D., & Garcia-Palomares, J. C. (2011). Transit ridership forecasting at station level: an approach based on distance-decay weighted regression. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1081-1092. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.05.004

Gutierrez, J., & Garcia-Palomares, J. C. (2008). Distance-measure impacts on the calculation of transport service areas using GIS. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 35(3), 480-503. doi:10.1068/b33043

Hamilton-Baillie, B. (2004). Urban Design: Why Don't We Do It in the Road? Modifying Traffic Behavior through Legible Urban Design. Journal of Urban Technology, 11(June 2012), 43-61.

Hamilton-Baillie, B., & Jones, P. (2005). Improving traffic behaviour and safety through urban design. Proceedings of the ICE - Civil Engineering, 158(5), 39-47. doi:10.1680/cien.2005.158.5.39

Hess, D. B. (2012). Walking to the bus: perceived versus actual walking distance to bus stops for older adults. Transportation, 39(2), 247-266. doi:10.1007/s11116-011-9341-1

Hoehner, C. M., Brennan Ramirez, L. K., Elliott, M. B., Handy, S. L., & Brownson, R. C. (2005). Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults. American journal of preventive medicine, 28(2), 105-16. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.023

Houlberg, C. (1979). An introduction to wind environment part II: Wind and Shelter in Built-up Aareas with commented stock of bibliography for BSA. Copenhagen.

Humpel, N., Owen, N., Iverson, D., Leslie, E., & Bauman, A. E. (2004). Perceived environment attributes, residential location, and walking for particular purposes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(2), 119-125. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2003.10.005

Jacobs, A. B. (1995). Great Streets. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.

Jenks, C. W. (1998). Continuing Examination of Successful Transit Ridership Initiatives.

Jiang, Y., Christopher Zegras, P., & Mehndiratta, S. (2012). Walk the line: station context, corridor type and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China. Journal of Transport Geography, 20(1), 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.09.007

Kang, J., Yang, W., & Zhang, M. (2004). Sound Environment and Acoustic Comfort in Urban Spaces. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Kaparias, I., Bell, M. G. H., Miri, A., Chan, C., & Mount, B. (2012). Analysing the perceptions of pedestrians and drivers to shared space. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 15(3), 297-310. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2012.02.001

Kashef, M. (2008). Architects and planners approaches to urban form and design in the Toronto region: A comparative analysis. Geoforum, 39(1), 414-437. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.09.002

Katzschner, L., Bosch, U., & Roettgen, M. (2004). Thermal Comfort Mapping and Zoning. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Kelly, C. E., Tight, M. R., Hodgson, F. C., & Page, M. W. (2010). A comparison of three methods for assessing the walkability of the pedestrian environment. Journal of Transport Geography, 44, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.08.001

Kleerekoper, L., van Esch, M., & Salcedo, T. B. (2011). How to make a city climate-proof, addressing the urban heat island effect. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.06.004

Kostic, M., & Djokic, L. (2009). Recommendations for energy efficient and visually acceptable street lighting. Energy, 34(10), 1565-1572. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.06.056

Larsen, J., & El-Geneidy, A. (2011). A travel behavior analysis of urban cycling facilities in Montreal, Canada. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(2), 172-177. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2010.07.011

Learnihan, V., Van Niel, K. P., Giles-Corti, B., & Knuiman, M. (2011). Effect of Scale on the Links between Walking and Urban Design. Geographical Research, 49(2), 183-191. doi:10.1111/j.1745-5871.2011.00689.x

Leon, A. S., Connett, J., Jacobs, D. R., & Rauramaa, R. (1987). Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death: The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. American Medical Association, 258(17), 2388-95.

Leslie, E., Saelens, B. E., Frank, L. D., Owen, N., Bauman, A. E., Coffee, N., & Hugo, G. (2005). Residents' perceptions of walkability attributes in objectively different neighbourhoods: a pilot study. Health & place, 11(3), 227-36. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2004.05.005

Lillebye, E. (1996). Architectural and functional relationships in street planning: an historical view. Landscape and Urban Planning, 35(2-3), 85-105. doi:10.1016/0169-2046(96)00307-6

Litman, T. (2003). Integrating public health objectives in transportation decision-making. American journal of health promotion: AJHP, 18(1), 103-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13677968

Martens, K. (2004). The bicycle as a feedering mode: experiences from three European countries. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 9(4), 281-294. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2004.02.005

Millington, C., Thompson, C. W., Rowe, D., Aspinall, P., Fitzsimons, C., Nelson, N., & Mutrie, N. (2009). Development of the Scottish Walkability Assessment Tool (SWAT). Health & place, 15(2), 474-81. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.09.007

Mori, M., & Tsukaguchi, H. (1987). A new method for evaluation of level of service in pedestrian facilities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 21(3), 223-234. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(87)90016-1

Morris, J. N., Clayton, D. G., Everitt, M. G., Semmence, A. M., & Burgess, E. H. (1990). Exercise in leisure time: Coronary attack and death rates. British Heart Journal, 63, 325-34.

NRG Research Group. (2010). Main Street Area Residents Survey.

Nabors, D., Gibbs, M., Sandt, L., Rocchi, S., Wilson, E., & Lipinski, M. (2007). Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists.

Nikolopoulou, M. (Ed.). (2004). Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Nikolopoulou, M., Kleissl, J., Linden, P. F., & Lykoudis, S. (2011). Pedestrians' perception of environmental stimuli through field surveys: focus on particulate pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 409(13), 2493-502. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.002

Owen, N., Humpel, N., Leslie, E., Bauman, A. E., & Sallis, J. F. (2004). Understanding environmental influences on walking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(1), 67-76. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.03.006

Ozbil, A., Peponis, J., & Keeping, M. (2011). Understanding the link between street connectivity, land use and pedestrian flows. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(2), 125-141. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.2

Paffenbarger, R. S., Hyde, R. T., Wing, A. L., & Hsieh, C. C. (1986). Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 605-13.

Penwarden, A. D., & Wise, A. F. E. (1975). Wind environment around buildings. London.

Project for Public Spaces. (2012). What is Placemaking??

Reconnecting America. (2011). Sustainable Urban Design & Transit.

Rodriguez, D. A., Khattak, A., & Evenson, K. (2006). Can new urbanism encourage physical activity? Physical activity in a new urbanist and conventional suburban neighborhoods. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 43-54.

Rodriguez, D. A., Brisson, E. M., & Estupiñán, N. (2009). The relationship between segment-level built environment attributes and pedestrian activity around Bogota's BRT stations. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14(7), 470-478. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2009.06.001

Rosen, E., & Sander, U. (2009). Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accident; analysis and prevention, 41(3), 536-42. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2009.02.002

Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F., & Frank, L. D. (2003). Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Findings From the Transportation, Urban Design, and Planning Literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25(2), 80-91. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12704009

Sandvik, L., Erikssen, J., Thaulow, E., Erikssen, G., Mundal, R., & Rodahl, K. (1993). Physical fitness as a predictor of mortality among healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men. New England Journal of Medicine, (328), 533-37.

Saraiva, M., & Pinho, P. (2011). A comprehensive and accessible approach to crime prevention in the planning and design of public spaces. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(3), 213-226. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.7

Schafer, R. M. (1976). The Tuning of the World. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Schmidt, S., Nemeth, J., & Botsford, E. (2011). The evolution of privately owned public spaces in New York City. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(4), 270-284. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.12

Scudo, G., Dessi, V., & Rogora, A. (2004). Evaluation of Radiant Conditions in Urban Spaces. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Sisiopiku, V. P., & Akin, D. (2003). Pedestrian behaviors at and perceptions towards various pedestrian facilities: an examination based on observation and survey data. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 6(4), 249-274. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2003.06.001

Steemers, K. A., Ramos, M. C., & Sinou, M. (2004). Urban Morphology. In M. Nikolopoulou (Ed.), Designing Open Spaces in the Urban Environment: a Bioclimatic Approach. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.

Susilo, Y. O., Williams, K., Lindsay, M., & Dair, C. (2012). The influence of individuals' environmental attitudes and urban design features on their travel patterns in sustainable neighborhoods in the UK. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 17(3), 190-200. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2011.11.007

Tan, D., Wang, W., Lu, J., & Bian, Y. (2007). Research on Methods of Assessing Pedestrian Level of Service for Sidewalk. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology, 7(5), 5-10.

Taylor, B. D., & Fink, C. N. Y. (2011). The Factors Influencing Transit Ridership: A Review and Analysis of the Ridership Literature.

Taylor, B. D., Iseki, H., Miller, M. A., & Smart, M. (2007). Thinking Outside the Bus: Understanding User Perceptions of Waiting and Transferring in Order to Increase Transit Use. Los Angeles.

Taylor, B. D., Miller, D., Iseki, H., & Fink, C. N. Y. (2009). Nature and/or nurture? Analyzing the determinants of transit ridership across US urbanized areas. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 43(1), 60-77. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2008.06.007

Thomsen, J. (2011). Reflections on the opportunities of urban planning to promote non-vehicular transportation in a sustainable settlement in Norway. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(3), 162-170. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.8

TransLink. (2011). Transit Passenger Facility Design Guidelines. October.

Transportation Research Board. (2005). Integration of Bicycles and Transit: A Synthesis of Transit Practice.

United Nations. (2007). World Population Prospects: the 2004 Revision. New York.

Van Dyck, D., Deforche, B., Cardon, G., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2009). Neighbourhood walkability and its particular importance for adults with a preference for passive transport. Health & place, 15(2), 496-504. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.08.010

Walmsley, A. (1995). Greenways and the making of urban form. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33, 81-127.

Wardman, M. (2001). A Review Of British Evidence On Time And Service Quality Valuations. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 37(2-3), 107-128. doi:10.1016/S1366-5545(00)00012-0

Wardman, M. (2004). Public transport values of time. Transport Policy, 11(4), 363-377. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2004.05.001

Wardman, M., Hine, J., & Stradling, S. (2001). Interchange and Travel Choice Volume 1 (Vol. 1).

Whyte, W. H. (1980). The Social Life Of Small Urban Spaces. New York: Project for Public Spaces Inc.

Yang, W., & Kang, J. (2003). A cross-cultural study of soundscape in urban open public spaces. Stockholm: Tenth International Congress on Sound and Vibration.

Yang, W., & Kang, J. (2005). Acoustic comfort evaluation in urban open public spaces. Applied Acoustics, 66(2), 211-229. doi:10.1016/j.apacoust.2004.07.011

York Regional Transit. (2009). Co-ordinated Street Furniture Urban Design Guidelines. York.

Zacharias, J., Zhang, T., & Nakajima, N. (2011). Tokyo Station City: The railway station as urban place. URBAN DESIGN International, 16(4), 242-251. doi:10.1057/udi.2011.15

BSUD Project Map