Introduction | Literature Review | 7 Goals | 9 Techniques | Selection | 9 Designs | Bibliography
AbstractBus Stop Urban Design (BSUD) seeks to improve the waiting environment at bus stops through urban design techniques. Because bus stops are embedded into the neighbourhood, improvements will not only benefit the riders, but also the immediate urban realm. A more comfortable waiting environment leads to greater rider satisfaction and shorter perceived wait times, leading to higher ridership. A well designed public space may leads to greater walkability in the area and a safer environment that is more conducive towards active transportation for local residents.
The project identifies 7 major goals in designing a good bus stop: safety, thermal comfort, acoustic comfort, wind protection, visual comfort, accessibility, and integration. The goals are achieved by 9 techniques: lighting, seating and surfaces, cover, amenities, information, vegetation, traffic management, pedestrian infrastructure and bicycle infrastructure. These 9 techniques are then applied to 9 bus stops in Metro Vancouver, ranging from major exchanges to remote stops. Beyond testing the identified goals and techniques in existing settings, the design section also demonstrates that with appropriate urban design expertise, municipalities can quickly develop and visualize public space designs with low costs and widely available technology.
AcknowledgmentsThis research has been generously supported by the Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions.
I would like to thank my supervisor, professor Maged Senbel, and my second reader, Scot Hein of City of Vancouver, for their invaluable advice throughout the entire process. I am grateful for the ongoing guidance and research tools provided by Michelle Babiuk of TransLink and professor Ronald Kellett of UBC.
In addition, I want to thank Frank Ducote, Gary Penway, and Alexander Kurnicki of the City of North Vancouver, Raymond Fung and Hans Breuer of West Vancouver, Courtney Miller of Richmond, Henry Wong of Coquitlam, Eric Vance and Kristi Smith of Port Moody for providing me with feedback on urban design issues and data for analysis. Modular bus shelter designs were iterated with insights and advice from Bita Vorell and Marco Bonaventura of TransLink.
Lastly, I thank my family and my girlfriend for their unwavering support, and the countless people I have talked to during my daily commute for their ideas and inspirations.
Figure 1.1.1: Space occupied by 28 single occupancy drivers, cyclists, and transit riders. Source: Complete Streets Canada.9 design techniques. Topics of focus include station amenities, non-vehicular access, and neighbourhood integration. It is hoped that better walking and waiting environments will lead to higher active transportation and transit mode shares, thereby reducing transportation related greenhouse gases and improving overall health.
This project contains five sections. First, the author reviews current literature on issues relating to urban design, transit, and commuter behaviour. Second, the distilled research results give rise to a set of 7 goals for urban design around transit. Third, the author identifies 9 design techniques for achieving the goals. Fourth, the author demonstrates each of the 9 techniques at a bus stop in Metro Vancouver. Fifth, the author makes recommendations for further actions and research.
UN reports, the urban population now amounts to 50 percent of total global population and will rise to about 75 percent by 2030 (United Nations, 2007). This poses dramatic transportation challenges for the major cities of the world. In British Columbia, half of household carbon emissions and one third of overall carbon emissions result from transportation, which consists largely of private automobile use (BC Ministry of Environment, 2008). Therefore, reducing car use can play a pivotal role in transitioning into a low carbon emissions economy. However, at the same time, we must improve transit service to ensure that mobility is not limited when car use decreases.